Widespread distribution of media has had a profound effect on how people have been educated. The invention of the printing press begun the information revolution that has only expanded with the invention of online technology and consoles such as the iPad. These two publishing devices have advanced how media is distributed and consumed using two different techniques, each contribution to the rise of education within society.

The invention of the printing press, in 1450, was one of history’s most pivotal moments. It was first made successful by Johann Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg who created the first moveable type printer (Farzaneh, 2009). This involved the creation of individual letters on a base of lead, tin and antimony which was durable enough to not melt in the press (Evans, 1998). This new method of publishing made the process of media production much quicker in comparison to the time consuming method of copying handwritten manuscripts. It also improved upon the consistency of the content as handwriting each manuscript left room for human error in spelling and grammar, which lead to poor education (Evans, 1998) The printing press improved on this through Gutenberg’s method as it allowed each word to be spaced, have the correct spelling and also be grammatically correct through the use of its pre-prepared moulds (Farzaneh, 2009).

Humanism literature became more popular than religious content after the inception of the printing press. This was partly due to its ability to reach a wider audience due to increased availability (Farzaneh, 2009). Consumers were no longer restricted to religious texts governed by the Catholic Church, which resulted in an increase in education. The printing press helped encourage a movement away from traditional religious content. Even though the humanist movement was gaining prominence around this time, the first heavily published work was Gutenberg’s famous 42 line bible, created in 1455 (Farzaneh, 2009). Growing economic prosperity along with the introduction of the printing press also increased education among the middle classes. Schools were founded and governed by the Catholic Church with their students being educated on both humanist literature and religious literature in order to prepare them for a career in the church or civil service. (Farzaneh, 2009).

After the invention of the printing press, the Catholic Church assumed control over what content students would be educated with, steering them towards careers that would benefit the church. The same cannot be said for the iPad’s influence on education today. The Apple iPad uses new technology to provide a tablet that has revolutionised media and education in today’s society, much like the printing press. It provides a large, high-resolution, multi-touch screen that has an easy to use functionality. The app store provides a host of learning devices that benefit all levels of education. Introducing the iPad to our educational institutions, according to societies reliance on technology,

is the next step for student learning. Our educational systems need to progress at the same rate that technology is advancing to keep interest alive within the student base. Apple has addressed the need to use technology within education, “Teachers and administrators cannot expect students to drop all of their gadgets and go to school, where they have to read from textbooks that have not been conceptually redesigned in over 150 years, and succeed” (Benham, 2012). Apple has done its research and addresses the need to move with times in order to be able to relate to younger generations in a way that they understand.

This also shows how far society has progressed in regards to technology and how it influences day-to-day functions as well as education. The iPad has at its disposal a growing app store. Here, apps can be created that are specific to each level of education. There are varying apps for each type of learning institution with each app employing special techniques that make them effective. The ‘Learn sign language’ by Remedios apps uses an interactive display that allows the consumer to see the movements used to make the desired sign (iTunes, 2012) This use of interaction aims to keep the attention of its consumers by playing on their need for new interesting technologies.

In the two years since the iPad was released, there is estimated to be over 1.5 million iPads being used in schools or universities within America (Bennet, 2011). Integrating technology into education systems is being used in an effort to keep the attention of students during school by using a more engaging medium. As we are a society that now relates more with computer technology, Apple executives argue that “today’s textbooks [aren’t] adequate teaching tools as technology [has] raced ahead. Instead, textbooks should be portable, searchable and easy to update”(Benham, 2011) It was essential to adopt the iPad into schools as we are now a society which is totally immersed in technology. Without our education systems keeping up with the constantly changing technological developments, education could decrease as interest wanes. With the advent of the internet, human knowledge changes so rapidly that traditional textbooks go out of date within months of being printed. The iPad reflects the fluidity and increased pace of communal human knowledge.

Online textbooks have exploded in popularity, decreasing the need for print media. It is now more economically viable to release an e-book than it is to print and Apple has done everything to make sure that their online textbooks provide a more all round experience. These e-books provide an interactive experience where students can use words, sounds, pictures and videos to have things explained to them in a more engaging manner. In this way, print media falls short. The e-book is also often a much cheaper option than print media; most online books are free or have a very small price tag (Bennet, 2011). Print media cannot compete because production costs mean that to make profit; they have to have a price set, which is well above the cost of an eBook. Apple has also capitalised on the green initiative with the iPad providing a paper free alternative that resounds well with environmental conscious schools who are trying to send a good message to its students (Gould, 2012)

Our society today places more emphasis on speed than on quality which is where society may come undone. Anyone can create an App which can then be uploaded and distributed, for a fee or for no cost at all. This speed removes the ability to check facts or quality of writing and we could again see ourselves reverting back to a time before the printing press, where a decreased amount of fact checking could affect the quality of education. This easy availability of e-books means that information is easier to consume but do not always have a legitimate publisher to check facts. Apple has thought of this and is looking at configuring a database similar to iTunes, their music cataloguing program which would work the same with educational textbooks (Garwood, 2010) This would provide e-books from legitimate publishers with correct information for schools. Some correct online textbooks have already been e-published but all have yet to be converted over to this content. Part of the reason why the iPad has yet to fully migrate into our education systems is because course textbooks have yet to be converted. The emphasis on speed also comes into effect due to consumers need for immediate information. It is rare to find people heading to the library before going online to source other information.

Online content is also more widely used due to it being more readily available or “easier” with textbooks being able to be downloaded and paid for within minutes. The implications of using an iPad in education are huge due to high competition between products; prices are driven downwards and with e-books costing next to nothing. It is now more financially viable for schools to invest in an iPad than it would be to invest in textbooks, which can be easily damaged. Apple’s warranty system means that iPads can be easily replaced if damaged and all content can be backed up on a  main server so that student work or textbook information wouldn’t be lost. (Bennet, 2011). As previously mentioned, the weight of the iPad is also a benefit as all the essential information can be stored within the device. It makes the need for numerous heavy textbooks redundant and unnecessary. This also helps in the long run as it reduces the quantity of items a student would be required to bring each day. This means that a student will not have to make the decision between a light bag and being able to read a lengthy textbook.

There is cross over between how both the printing press and the iPad influenced how each of their societies consumed media to benefit education. The printing press revolutionised its time, as the iPad is beginning to revolutionise ours. These two publishing techniques reflect their times and allow us to notice how each medium helped progress education. The printing press advanced its time by reducing the ability to make mistakes and increasing consistency. The iPad has to be careful in what content its app store creates. It needs to be more stringent in what content it allows to be uploaded in order to keep a certain consistency in its products. However, it is inevitable that e-books are the way forward in education and will soon become a regular figure in our school systems.




  1. Apple Education Event  (Video File). Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/apple-events/. Viewed 28th      of May 2012
  2. Bennet, Kristin (2011).      Less than a class set: just a few iPads in a classroom can support and      enhance learning and facilitate individualised instruction, Learning and Leading with Technology. Retrived      from http://ic.galegroup.com.      Viewed 28 of May 2012
  3. Benham, Durward. 2012. How the iPad will influence the Future      of Education. http://www.thethunderproject.org/archives/1369. Viewed on 28th of May 2012
  4. Gould, Jasmine. 2012. The iPad, Revolutionising the Future of      Education. http://jasminefutureofeduction.blogspot.com.au/2012/02/ipads-influence-upon-edcuation.html.      Viewed on 28th of May 2012.
  5. Meyer, Jessica. 2012. From ABCs to PhDs: The Accessibility      and Effects of Online Education. http://www.ipadinschools.com/.      Viewed on 28th of May 2012.
  6.  App store apps. 2012. Top 50 Free Education Apps. http://www.appstoreapps.com/top-50-free-education-apps/.      Viewed on the 28th of May 2012.
  7. Garwood, Buzz. 2010.  Defining iPad’s Impact on Education. http://www.thisweekinedtech.com/home/2010/2/6/defining-ipads-impact-on-education.html.      Viewed on the 28th of May.
  8. Arthur, Peter. 2004. The Impact of the Printing Press. http://educ.ubc.ca/courses/etec540/Sept04/arthurp/researchtopic/index.htm.      Viewed on the 28th of May.
  9. Evans, Daniela. 1998. A Critical Examination of Claims      Concerning the ‘Impact’ of Print. http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Students/dle9701.html. Viewed      on the 28th of May.
  10. Rusnak, Sylvia. 2011. Cornell University Press Sees Sales of      Printed Books Decline. http://cornellsun.com/section/news/content/2011/10/17/cornell-university-press-sees-sales-printed-books%E2%80%88decline. Viewed      on the 28th of May 2012.
  11. Kreis, Steven. 2004. The Printing Press. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/press.html. Viewed on      the 28th of May 2012.
  12. Farzaneh, Arash. 2009. Renaissance Humanism and the Human      Perspective. http://suite101.com/article/renaissance-humanism-and-the-human-perspective-a88130.      Viewed on the 28th of May 2012.
  13. Farzaneh, Arash. 2009. The Historical Influences of the Printing      Press. http://suite101.com/article/the-invention-and-repercussions-of-the-printing-a87609.      Viewed on the 28th of May 2012.

Media platforms are increasingly diverse which helps media be distributed and consumed by consumers in a way that suits or benefits them. One of the readings from this week offers an insight into a man called David Gauntlett’s book “Making is Connecting” which in itself offers insight into the world of social media and the platforms it uses to connect consumers and media outlets. But in the link provided he also offers a variety of media platforms in which to engage with his book. There are reviews filmed with a vlogging type technique, a video of a prezi presentation giving you a brief glimpse at the book, free extracts, and he even uses blogging. He advertises solely through word of mouth and social networking using multiple social platforms to get a wider readership.

This video showcases growing social media platforms and how their influence has changed how media is consumed. It also has a ridiculously catchy song to go with it!

Another example of aggregation is google. Google aggregates all the information for you and it allows you to search on demand so that it then distributes the information. If more people start googling a term it means an increase in its availability of information and the relevance of that information.

Wikipedia does the same in that it lets a wide range of people aggregate data on its pages with information they gain from somewhere and then they use wikipedia as its distribution platform. These then get picked up by search engines such as google who can replicate them and aggregate further data to then distribute.


Gauntlett, David (2010) Making is Connecting (watch the video) <http:// http://www.makingisconnecting.org/&gt;

Guillaud, Hubert (2010) (on Danah Boyd) ‘What is implied by living in a world of flow?’, Truthout, January 6, <http://www.truthout.org/what-implied-living-a-world-flow56203&gt;

Dodson, Wes (2009) ‘Dawn of the Systems Age’, Page 3.14 <http://scienceblogs.com/ seed/2009/12/dawn_of_the_systems_age.php#more>


The topic of visualization made us access a basic instinct we use everyday, visualizing. While looking through the readings I found the article “what does 200 calories look like?” which really resonated with me due to my keen interest in nutrition and fitness. I responded with this article because of its content which helped explain the topic of visualization in a way that was easily understandable. From this article i looked around for ways that information can be re-told to consumers in a way that is interesting and new and can allow the public to interact with them more than they would with writing on paper.

I found this video on youtube that showed a range of temperature’s through an interesting viual tool.


Resource List:

Arnell, Timo (2006) ‘the dashed line in use’, <http://www.nearfield.org/2006/09/the-dashed-line-in-use>

Crucial: spend a bit of time on looking at the information graphics on <http://infosthetics.com/> and some VJing, <http://www.diigo.com/user/andersand/vjing>

This is a great example of very technically easy but effective information graphic. <http://infosthetics.com/archives/2007/01/how_does_200_calories_look_like.html>

Oilchange International <http://dirtyenergymoney.com/>

and just because it is wonderful: look at Edward’s Tufte’s poster on power point. <http://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/powerpoint>

Plato (n.d.) on ‘art and illusion’ in ‘a snippet of a dialogue: Theodorus – Theaetetus – Socrates – an Eleatic stranger’ from Sophist, <http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/ancient-greece/plato/plato-sophist.asp?pg=34>

Debord, Guy (n.d.) Unity and Division Within Appearances’, The Society of the Spectacle <http://www.bopsecrets.org/SI/debord/3.htm> [read parts 54-61]

Editors and Friedberg, Anne (2007) ‘The Virtual Window Interactive’ Vectors, 2(2) <http://www.vectorsjournal.org/index.php?page=7&projectId=79> [The evolving regimes of window vision—read ‘Editor’s introduction’ and then view the project]

Gates, Carrie (2009) ‘Vague Terrain 09: Rise of the VJ’, <http://vagueterrain.net/journal09>

PIRACY IS A CRIME” is plastered on absolutely everything these days. Every DVD or CD has at least one notice saying that piracy is a crime. Even in video stores (if those still exist) have these signs or are playing the ad in store. But as you can see from the comments attached to the video above, its message isn’t really being heard.

Piracy is easy to accidentally fall prey to. My sweet innocent mother recently came back from an overseas trip to bali and when the gift giving ceremony began she proudly displayed up to a 100 pirated DVD’s looking proud as punch she exclaimed that they only cost a $1 each. But physical copies of movies and music are becoming the least problematic with most content being streamed directly online or downloaded from sites such as pirate bay.

These streaming sites appeal to a younger audience who follow specific television shows that are released overseas before they are shown in Australia. This temptation of seeing the next episode before anyone else spurs alot of people into downloading from illegal sites.

Resource List:


The term infotention was moulded by a man called Howard Rheingold. He uses this term to help explain how we have modernised and modified how we interact with and sort online information.

Navigating online content has become a necessary life skill. To find our way online today you need to adopt technical skills and tools and a mixed concoction of brain power and attention to detail to even begin to navigate your way to relevant online content. Infotention requires the honing of our mental ability to focus appropriate attention for each essential internal skill. It is an essential internal skill for anyone who wants to find, direct and manage streams of relevant information so that they are able to navigate online media knowledgeably. Rheingold urges us to employ effective ways to filter information.

Using our cognitive functions to understand what is relevant to pay attention to is also an important process. The use of this function steers and focuses our attention to find information worthy of notice. The combination of congnitive functions with our adopted technical skills and tools makes it easier for us to know where to direct our interest. You can combine your use of cognitive functions with social media allowing you to use social, technological and internal resources to navigate online content. This combination allows information to be seen over the busy network of the web, it essentially keeps things relevant and noticed.  It also allows us to feed our information curiosity and combine the social aspect with that of the internal and technological networks.

Also an added youtube clip on infotention by Howard!

Resource List:

Walljasper, Jay (2010) ‘The Commons Moment is Now’, Commondreams.org,  <http://www.commondreams.org/view/2011/01/24-0>

Meretz, Stefan (2010) ‘Ten Theses about Global Commons Movement’, P2P Foundation, <http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/ten-theses-about-global-commons-movement/2011/01/05>

Michael H. Goldhaber (1997) ‘Attention Shoppers!’, Wired, <http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/5.12/es_attention.html>

Temple, James (2011) ‘All those tweets, apps, updates may drain brain’ San Fransciso Chronicle, April 17, <http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/04/16/BUTO1J0S2P.DTL>

Rheingold, Howard (2009) ‘Mindful Infotention: Dashboards, Radars, Filters’, SFGate,<http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/blogs/rheingold/detail?entry_id=46677>

Macready, J. Douglas (2010) ‘The New Revolution: Stiegler and Arendt on Psychopower, Education, and the Life of the Mind’, The Relative Absolute, <http://therelativeabsolute.wordpress.com/2010/12/28/the-new-revolution-stiegler-and-arendt-on-psychopower-education-and-the-life-of-the-mind/>

Kinsley, Sam (2010) ‘The Technics of Attention’, Paying Attention <http://payingattention.org/2010/10/12/the-technics-of-attention/>

Kinsley, Sam (2010) ‘Tiziana Terranova—The Bios of Attention’, Paying Attention <http://payingattention.org/2010/09/07/tiziana-terranova-the-bios-of-attention/>

Kinsley, Sam, (2010) ‘Day 3 > Michel Bauwens’ Paying Attention, <http://payingattention.org/2010/09/09/day-3-michel-bauwens/>

Kinsley, Sam (2010)  ‘Bernard Stiegler: Pharmacology of Attention and Relational Ecology’, Paying Attention, <http://payingattention.org/2010/09/08/bernard-stiegler-pharmacology-of-attention-and-relational-ecology/>

Monbiot, George (2010) ‘Reclaim the Cyber-Commons’, Monbiot.com, <http://www.monbiot.com/archives/2010/12/13/reclaim-the-cyber-commons>

Erard, Michael (2009) ‘A short manifesto on the future of attention’, Observatory <http://observatory.designobserver.com/entry.html?entry=10297>

Yoffe, Emily (2009) ‘Seeking: How the brain hard-wires us to love Google, Twitter, and texting. And why that’s dangerous’ Slate, <http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2009/08/seeking.html>

NPR (2010) ‘The Price of Putting Your Brain on Computers’ <http://www.npr.org/2010/12/29/132369113/the-price-of-having-your-brain-on-computers>

O’Malley, Mike (2010) ‘Attention and Information’ The Aporetic, <http://theaporetic.com/?p=228>

Jenkins, Henry (2010) ‘Multitasking and Continuous Partial Attention: An Interview with Linda Stone (Part One)’ Confession of an ACA-Fan, <http://henryjenkins.org/2010/11/multitasking_and_continuous_pa.html>

Heffernan, Virginia (2010) ‘The Attention Span Myth’, New York Times, <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/21/magazine/21FOB-medium-t.html>

Boyd, Stowe (2010) ‘The False Question of Attention Economics’, Stowe Boyd, <http://www.stoweboyd.com/post/764818419/the-false-question-of-attention-economics>

Rock, David (2010) ‘New study shows humans are on auto pilot nearly half the time’, Psychology Today, <http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/your-brain-work/201011/new-study-shows-humans-are-auto-pilot-nearly-half-the-time>

Hildyard, Nicholas, Lohmann, Larry, Sexton, Sarah and Fairlie, Simon (1995) ‘Reclaiming the Commons’ The Corner House, <http://www.thecornerhouse.org.uk/resource/reclaiming-commons>

Robin Good and Michel Bauwens (2010) ‘From Open Business Models to an Economy of the Commons’, Robin Good, <http://www.masternewmedia.org/from-open-business-models-to-an-economy-of-the-commons/>

I have been taking and editing photograph’s for the past five years. In that time I have taken thousands upon thousands of photographs which have all been stored and filed on my personal hard drive.

This is an archive a way for me to store, arrange and easily access all my photograph’s so that I can go back and review past photo shoots. ‘Archive fever’, written by Jacques Derrida in 1997, suggests that all the different media areas make and destroy archives differently. With the creation of new archives they unintentionally make redundant other forms of archiving. Derrida considers how publishing and publics have been influenced by archiving and the way in which different forms of publishing interact with it.

With the introduction of the internet and also the way we communicate the way we file and archive documents or information has drastically changed. Emailing has replaced the postal service to some extent. It allows us to transfer and receive information at  a quicker pace, while also letting us archive the information online or on your computer. Saving time and space.

Online archiving has allowed us new possibilities such as the way we share or update instantaneously through social media. Facebooks new system “Timeline” has collected all our old posts from the archives and allowed us to view our past virtually with ease. Our online imprint has essentially allowed us to create a permanent personal archive of past events in our lives.

Resource List:

Stokes, Jon (2003) ‘Reading Notes: Archive Fever’, Ars Technica, June 27, <http://arstechnica.com/old/content/2003/06/130.ars>

Howard, Sharon (2007) ‘Reposted: Archive fever (a dusty digression)’, Early Modern Notes, September 25, <http://emn.sharonhoward.org/2007/09/reposted-archive-fever-a-dusty-digression/>

Enszer, Julie R. (2008) Julie R. Enszer (personal blog), ‘Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression by Jacques Derrida’, November 16, <http://julierenszer.blogspot.com/2008/11/archive-fever-freudian-impression-by.html>

Ogle, Matthew (2010) ‘Archive Fever: A love letter to the post real-time web’, mattogle.com, December 16, <http://mattogle.com/archivefever/>

Then, consider http://www.myschool.edu.au/ … a very recent example of “archive fever” and publishing intervening in the public. We’ll be talking about Wikileaks in the next few weeks (so maybe leave it out of the discussion for this week).

Nothing is ever black and white.

I thought publishing was simple. Just print on paper or some typing on some screen but it is alot more complex than i first thought!

This week we were focusing on social and technological interactions calling “Publishing Assemblages” which has come about due to drastic changes within publishing. The concept focuses on how technology influences the way we express, form and distribute content, but still focusing on the influence publics have on publishing.

Publishing Assemblages go hand in hand with another concept called Actor Network Theory. This method encourages you to think about assemblages with careful consideration and to treat all elements and relations as equally as possible.

The creator of the Actor Network Theory, Bruno Latour, takes into consideration both human and non-human “actants” within the networks.

Resource List:

Before class, you will need to begin to think through some moments in the history of publishing. There’s actually not a lot of reading (although you should have read the above carefully). The following short readings will help you with the methods involved:

‘Actor Network Theory’, Wikipedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actor-network_theory> (very short, very useful summary of Latour)

‘Actor Network Rochambeau’, any-space-whatever blog, <http://www.anyspacewhatever.com/actor-network-rochambeau/>, November 14, 2010 (on Latour)

‘A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity’, Wikipedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_New_Philosophy_of_Society:_Assemblage_Theory_and_Social_Complexity> (on DeLanda’s assemblage theory .. look first at the examples at the end)